College of ACES
College News

Orr Ag Center Field Day July 22

Published July 17, 2015

URBANA, Ill - The 2015 Orr Center Field Day presented by the University of Illinois Department of Crop Sciences will be held on Wednesday, July 22, at the Orr Agricultural and Demonstration Center in Perry, Ill.

Group tours will start at 9 a.m., with the last group leaving by 9:20 a.m. The tour will take about two hours, and will be followed by lunch provided by U of I Extension.

The following presenters will speak about current conditions and management challenges in crop production and protection.

  • Angie Peltier - Management of Sudden Death Syndrome in soybean
  • Aaron Hager - To mix or to rotate: Herbicides and weed resistance
  • Jake Vossenkemper - Soybean varietal maturity and planting date
  • Stacy Zuber and Mollie Adams - Do crop rotations affect soils?
  • Emerson Nafziger - Are we getting better at managing nitrogen?

The Orr Ag Center is located on Route 104 four miles west of the junction of Illinois Routes 104 and 107 in Pike County.

For more information, contact Mike Vose at 217-236-4911, or mvose@illinois.edu.

PhD Student Festus Amadu named Norman E. Borlaug Fellow

Published July 17, 2015
NRES PhD Student Festus Amadu
NRES PhD Student Festus Amadu, Norman E. Borlaug Fellow

NRES PhD student Festus Amadu has been selected as a fellow of the Norman E. Borlaug Leadership Enhancement in Agriculture Program (Borlaug LEAP) for the 2015-2016 academic year. Borlaug LEAP is supported through the Feed the Future Borlaug 21st Century Leadership Program funded by the US Agency for International Development. 

Borlaug LEAP awards fellowships to outstanding graduate students “who show strong promise as leaders in the field of agriculture and related disciplines.”  The program honors Dr. Norman Borlaug whose distinguished career epitomized the qualities of leadership, scholarship, scientific achievement, international cooperation, mentoring, and passion in the allied fields of agriculture, the environment and natural resources.

Amadu, a second year PhD student, will be conducting research on the functional linkage between agricultural extension and environmental sustainability in the African countries of Uganda and Malawi.

As part of the fellowship program, Amadu will be undertaking an internship at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

News Source:

Dr. Lulu Rodriguez

Statewide survey of first-generation European corn borer confirms exceedingly low population

Published July 14, 2015
European corn borer action site. Photo courtesy of Michael Gray.

URBANA, Ill. – A recent survey taken throughout the state by the University of Illinois Extension shows that the European corn borer population is down in Illinois.

The recent work is part of an ongoing U of I Extension integrated pest management program sponsored by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA).

The research team, led by Nick Tinsley, a crop sciences postdoctoral research associate, surveyed 28 counties between June 10 and June 22 for first-generation European corn borer injury.

Michael Gray, a U of I entomologist, explained that five cornfields were randomly selected in each county and, within each field, 100 consecutive whorl-stage plants were sampled for any signs of whorl feeding or the presence of European corn borer larvae. An action site was sampled for European corn borer moths near each field by making 100 sweeps with a standard insect sweep net.

“We characterized action sites as dense stands of tall grasses in roadside ditches or nearby waterways. Within these action sites moths congregate and mating occurs,” Gray said.

The counties and regions included in the sampling were: Bureau, Knox, Mercer, Ogle, and Whiteside (northwestern Illinois); Kane, Kankakee, LaSalle, Livingston, and McLean (northeastern Illinois); Adams, Fulton, Logan, McDonough, and Morgan (west central Illinois); Christian, Clark, Effingham, Piatt, and Vermilion (east central Illinois); Bond, Jackson, Macoupin, and St. Clair (southwestern Illinois); and Gallatin, Jefferson, Lawrence, and Massac (southeastern Illinois).

“Remarkably, no European corn borer moths were recovered at any of the 140 locations (5 fields in each of the 28 counties) in spite of making a total of 14,000 sweeps,” Gray said. “Of the 14,000 whorl-stage plants examined, only 68 had shot-holing or evidence of first-generation injury.”

The mean percentage of plants with first-generation whorl feeding by region was very low: 0.28 percent (east central); 0.56 percent (northeast); 0.64 percent (northwest); 0.75 percent (southwest); 0.25 percent (southeast); and 0.44 percent (west central).

“The extensive use of highly effective Bt hybrids and the area-wide suppression brought about by these transgenic hybrids is the primary explanation for these very low densities of European corn borers,” Gray said.

He explained that according to the USDA Economic Research Service (ERS), the use of “stacked gene varieties” accounted for 88 percent of the corn grown in Illinois during the current growing season. “The stormy weather pattern that enveloped much of Illinois during our sampling efforts also likely contributed to the poor establishment of the first generation of borers,” Gray added.

“During some of my summer meetings, a few producers mentioned they had discovered first-generation borers in their non-Bt cornfields. To some extent, this observation caught them by surprise. Although the overall European corn borer population is down across Illinois, this once-prominent insect pest flourished for decades (prior to the widespread adoption of Bt hybrids) in many cornfields each season across the Corn Belt,” Gray said.

“Where non-Bt corn is grown, European corn borers have the potential to infest these fields and cause losses. Therefore, don’t neglect to scout those fields carefully and be prepared to apply a timely rescue treatment,” he said.

Gray added that to date, there is no evidence of field-level resistance development by European corn borers to Bt hybrids.

“This is a remarkable success story nearly 20 years after the commercial release (1996) of Bt hybrids aimed at this insect,” Gray said.

Guidelines for summer food safety

Published July 14, 2015

URBANA, Ill. - Summer is a time for fun, food, and relaxation, but it is also a time when foodborne illnesses increase, according to a University of Illinois Extension, nutrition and wellness educator.

“Foodborne-related illnesses do increase during the summer months, primarily for two reasons. The reasons, however, may not be what one would typically think,” said Diane Reinhold.

In order to understand why foodborne illnesses occur, Reinhold explained that we first need to understand some of the science behind the causes of foodborne illness. The two culprits responsible for most foodborne related illnesses are bacteria and viruses.

“Bacteria are naturally present throughout our environment and can be found almost everywhere. Under the right conditions, there is a never-ending threat of bacteria quickly multiplying to unsafe numbers,” explained Reinhold, also a registered dietitian. “Viruses, on the other hand, such as Norovirus, can spread directly from person to person or by an infected person who unknowingly contaminates food or drink prepared for others

“Norovirus can survive for weeks on surfaces that it has contaminated,” she added.

If bacteria and viruses cause foodborne illnesses, why does this occur more often during the summer months?

“It is important to understand that there are ideal growing conditions for microorganisms, such as bacteria. Most bacteria that are responsible for foodborne-related illnesses, such as Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) and Salmonella, prefer warm temperatures and need moisture to flourish,” Reinhold explained. “Thus the heat and humidity common to Illinois summers cultivate endless opportunities for bacteria to quickly multiply to unsafe levels.”

In addition to summer’s ideal conditions for bacteria to grow, there is still yet another factor that contributes to the increase in foodborne related illnesses. Reinhold said that more people are simply busy enjoying the out-of-doors. “With more people enjoying outdoor activities, more people are also eating outdoors. Whether attending family reunions or church potlucks, grilling, camping, or enjoying the day at the beach, it is important to keep food safety in the forefront,” she cautioned.

What can you do to help prevent foodborne-related illnesses this summer?

Plan ahead. “When transporting food it is essential to find out ahead of time if there will be enough space to safely store food to prevent unsafe food temperatures, not only while traveling, but also once the destination is reached,” she said.

“If you will be traveling, use a cooler and ice packs to help keep food cold.  When storing your cooler, place it in the coldest part of the car and when you arrive at your destination, place the cooler in a cool or shaded area,” she added.

Placing a thermometer inside the cooler will help in monitoring the temperature and will indicate when temperatures have risen to unsafe levels.

Keep foods out of the “danger zone.” Bacteria can multiple quickly between the temperatures of 41 and 135 degrees. Keep hot foods at or above 135 degrees by carrying them in insulated carriers or using containers specially designed to keep food hot, Reinhold said. “Make arrangements ahead of time to keep food hot until served. When reheating foods an internal temperature of 165 degrees must be reached to be considered safe,” she added.

Do not cross contaminate. Cross contamination is the transfer of harmful microorganisms from one surface to another. “To avoid cross contamination always clean cutting boards, utensils, and counter tops with warm soapy water after each use. To prevent recontamination of foods, never replace cooked food on the same plate or cutting board that previously held raw food. This includes raw fruits or vegetables,” Reinhold explained.   

Use a food thermometer. When checking for doneness, use a food thermometer. “The use of a thermometer is the only safe and reliable way to ensure food is cooked to a temperature high enough to kill harmful microorganisms,” Reinhold said.

When checking food temperature, remove food from the heat source and insert the thermometer through the thickest part of the dish or meat, allowing it to reach the middle of the food. “Repeat this process in several different places to ensure food is cooked evenly throughout to a safe minimum internal temperature,” she said. “Avoid touching bone, fat or gristle with the thermometer probe. Remember to clean your food thermometer with hot soapy water before and after each use, to prevent cross contamination.”

Refrigerate promptly after serving. Because warm summer temperatures cause microorganisms to multiply quickly, food left unrefrigerated for more than two hours may not be safe to eat. However, when the temperature is above 90 degrees, food should not be left out for more than one hour. Therefore, refrigerate food promptly. 

“Summer is a wonderful time to enjoy eating outdoors. Protect your family, friends, and yourself from foodborne-related illnesses by practicing safe food handling,” Reinhold said.

For more information about nutrition, wellness, and safe food handling, contact Reinhold at 815-235-4125 or dreinhol@illinois.edu.

News Writer:

University of Illinois Extension

Bird's the Word at the ACES Family Academy

Published July 14, 2015
Future ornithologists with Common Yellowthroat ( Geothlypis trichas)
Future ornithologists with Common Yellowthroat ( Geothlypis trichas)

On July 9-10th, the College of ACES Alumni Association hosted the first annual ACES Family Academies, a program that offered alumni and their children educational classes to take while enjoying the ACES campus.  These classes introduced participants to the variety of subject areas studied in ACES, and provided hands-on experiences with research techniques used by scientists on campus as well as in labs around the world.

The Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences (NRES) participated by offering a course titled, “Bird’s the Word:  Exploring Avian Ecology and Conservation.”  Graduate student Janice Kelly and NRES department head Dr. Jeff Brawn instructed the course and discussed how marking/banding wild birds is an important technique for monitoring avian populations.  The instructors demonstrated these techniques by catching songbirds at Phillips Tract, a local research property managed by the University of Illinois.  The participants were able to see wild birds up close while learning about the ecology and conservation concerns of many familiar birds.  The participants also learned about ongoing research projects conducted by students and faculty in NRES that use mark-recapture data for monitoring purposes.

View our FB album of additional images

News Source:

Janice Kelly

Still a lot of uncertainty about the 2015-16 corn marketing year

Published July 13, 2015

URBANA, Ill. – The USDA released new projections for the 2015-16 corn marketing year in the July 10 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report. Marketing year-ending stocks are expected to be 172 million bushels smaller and the average farm price is expected to be 25 cents higher than projected a month earlier. A University of Illinois agricultural economist says uncertainty surrounding these projections is likely greater than is normally the case for this time of year.

“Stocks of old-crop corn at the beginning of the 2015-16 marketing year are projected at 1.779 billion bushels, 97 million bushels less than the June projection and 302 million less than projected in October 2014,” said Darrel Good. “Corn consumption during the current marketing year is expected to exceed last month’s projections in all three major consumption categories.”

Good reported that the projection of feed and residual use was increased by 50 million bushels to a total of 5.3 billion in response to the smaller-than-expected inventory of corn on June 1. Use for ethanol and by-product production was increased by 25 million bushels to a total of 5.2 billion in response to the higher-than-projected rate of ethanol production in June and higher forecasts of gasoline consumption. The export projection was increased by 25 million bushels, to a total of 1.85 billion in response to the current pace of shipments and sales. In addition, the recently released Census Bureau export estimate for May exceeded USDA export inspections by 10 million bushels. 

The forecast of harvested acreage of corn for grain in 2015 was reduced by 0.6 million acres, reflecting the estimates in the USDA’s June Acreage report.

“The extremely wet weather in the eastern Corn Belt during June has created some uncertainty about the magnitude of planted and harvested acreage of corn in 2015,” Good said. “Clarification about acreage will come slowly, with the USDA’s October Crop Production report likely to provide a good forecast of the final acreage estimates. The market will look for acreage clues in the early USDA Farm Service Agency reports of planted and prevented acreage expected in August and September. The fact that planted acreage of corn was less than June intentions in 14 of the past 19 years, along with the late planting season in some areas, suggest that the final acreage estimate will be smaller than the June forecast this year.”

 As expected, the projection of the average 2015 corn yield remained unchanged at 166.8 bushels because that projection is based on a trend-adjusted weather model adjusted for timeliness of planting and assumes average July weather. Additionally, crop condition ratings remained quite good in the first week of July.

“It appears that many market participants believe that yield potential has been reduced below 166.8 bushels due to the extremely wet weather in the eastern Corn Belt,” Good said. “The USDA will release the first survey-based yield forecast on Aug.12. Between now and then, yield expectations will largely be based on the USDA’s weekly crop condition ratings. Corn yield models based on trend-yield and end-of-year crop ratings generally show a yield change of about 0.6 bushel for each one point change in the percentage of the crop rated in good or excellent condition,” he said.

On the consumption side, the July WASDE projections are for a 25-million-bushel year-over-year reduction in feed and residual use, and a 25 million bushel increase in both exports and ethanol use of corn.

“The lower projection for feed and residual use compared to both last year’s use and last month’s projection is attributed to a smaller crop production projection, higher corn prices, and larger supplies of distillers’ grains,” Good said. “The increase in distiller’s grains production, however, is expected to be very small and will likely be more than absorbed by larger exports. The key to feed use during the year ahead will likely be the pace of hog production and the pace of replacing the layer flock that has been reduced by bird flu,” he said.

According to Good, the higher projection for ethanol use of corn reflects the projection of increased domestic gasoline consumption.

The export forecast is 25 million bushels larger than the projection for the current year, but 25 million bushels smaller than last month’s projection. The smaller projection this month reflects expectations for increased export competition from Brazil stemming from the large 2015 harvest. However, Brazilian production and exports are expected to decline in 2016. Stocks of corn at the end of the 2015-16 marketing year are projected to be 1.599 billion bushels, 180 million bushels smaller than stocks at the beginning of the year. The marketing-year average farm price is projected in a range of $3.45 to $4.05.

“In years with substantial production uncertainty, prices tend to be above the subsequent marketing-year average during the growing season, offering producers the opportunity to forward price a portion of the crop,” Good said. “That pattern seems to be unfolding this year. New-crop corn prices are currently above both the spring price for crop revenue insurance and above the upper end of the range of the USDA’s marketing-year average price projection.  Still, prices could trade in a relatively wide range over the next 10 weeks. 

“Pricing decisions remain difficult for producers, particularly for those with substantial production uncertainty,” Good said. “Risk can be mitigated with a combination of incremental sales at higher prices and options strategies that provide a floor above the crop revenue price of $4.15 for December futures.”

 

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